A study in which the researcher observes naturally occurring events.
A process for identifying gaps between current and desired performance.
Net present value (NPV)
A financial calculation that determines the current value of future cash flows.
The absence of bias or favoritism in an evaluation process.
Non-equivalent control group design
A research design that compares two groups that are not equivalent.
A research design that does not involve manipulation of variables.
An evaluation method that compares an individual’s performance to a predetermined standard or norm.
Evaluating an individual’s performance in comparison to a group.
A statement that there is no significant difference between two groups or variables.